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12 Hallmarks of Aging (update)

Featured photo of an old couple that is used for the Post Hallmarks of Aging

There isn’t a single one of us out there who hasn’t had to deal with the consequences of growing older. However, when most of us think about aging, we tend to focus on the negative parts of the process. You know, those creases in your grin that you swear weren’t there yesterday, those annoying grey hairs that seem to grow in faster and faster with each passing day… and those creaking knees, what’s the deal with them?. It is clear that there are some positive effects associated with growing aging, such as increased cognitive function.

Science Behind Aging

Certain commonalities have been identified by scientists who research aging, including the fact that some animals age in the same way. Nine of these characteristics were chosen as the hallmarks of aging based on their overall importance and influence on the individual and society. Each is highly distinct, yet they interact with one another to contribute to the indications of aging that we see as we become older. Because we now understand these processes and how they interact, we can not only better comprehend the process of aging, but we can also begin to consider how these processes may be adjusted to reduce the negative effects of time.

The 12 Hallmarks of Aging

(updated from the previously recognized 9 hallmarks of aging)

We have attempted to characterize and classify the cellular and molecular markers of aging in this article. We present nine possible aging phenotypes that are widely believed to contribute to the aging process and, when combined, define the aging picture.

1. Genomic instability

The aggregation of genetic damage over the course of a person’s life is a common denominator of aging. Numerous things can have an effect on the integrity of our DNA throughout time. As damage accumulates, an inability to operate properly can result in illness and premature aging.

2. Telomere Degeneration

Telomeres, which are located at the ends of our chromosomes, shrink over time, making cell division more difficult. This very intricate process can result in age-related illness, which is unsurprising.

3. Alterations in the epigenome

Our DNA may be chemically transformed both inside and outside, for example, through the foods we eat or through sun exposure. These alterations can influence whether a gene is expressed or not, therefore promoting or inhibiting the creation of the protein for which the gene codes.

4. Loss of Proteostasis

Proteostasis ensures that proteins in our bodies are folded correctly, degraded properly, transported properly, and synthesized properly. To conclude, as we age, misfolded proteins accumulate, which can result in a variety of problems, including chronic inflammation.

5. Nutrient Senescence

Nutrient availability and deficiency have a significant impact on how our body works on a molecular level. Over time, excessive metabolic activity can damage our cells and accelerate their aging.

6. Mitochondrial Dysfunction

There can’t be many benefits in putting more stress on “the powerhouse of the cell.” And, in fact, it isn’t the case. It has been shown that mitochondrial malfunction can actually speed up the pace at which our cells undergo apoptosis – otherwise known as cell death.

7. Cellular Senescence

As we age, cells that are unable to divide tend to accumulate. They amass and convey signals that may trigger inflammation and lead to the development of a variety of chronic illnesses.

8. Stem Cell Exhaustion

Our stem cells’ activity gradually declines as we age for a variety of reasons. Senescent cells, for example, emit pro-inflammatory signals that inhibit stem cell function and contribute to tissue regeneration loss.

9. Altered Intercellular Communication

Cells communicate constantly in order to operate properly. As we age, the signaling channels by which our cells interact can get disturbed, resulting in a variety of different types of harm.

These hallmarks have survived scientific examination over the past decade, but longevity research has made major advances in that time. There are nearly 300,000 scholarly papers on the subject, each one shedding light on previously unknown information.

Because of this, a new version of “Hallmarks of Aging” was released to incorporate the research findings of the previous decade.

10. Disabled Macroautophagy

This newly added hallmark refers to the deterioration of cells’ capacity to degrade and recycle damaged cellular components. So, as we age, the autophagy process declines, causing a buildup of damaged cells and organelles.

11. Dysbiosis/ Microbiome Disturbance

The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical factor in numerous diseases, and it differs with age. Because the immune system’s ability to shape the variety and species members of the microbiome declines with age, the microbiomes of older individuals tend to lose diversity and change in makeup.

12. Chronic Inflammation

Chronic inflammation, also known as inflammaging, has been connected to many age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, gout, and neurodegenerative disorders. Changes in other aging characteristics, such as chromosomal instability and impaired autophagy, can lead to inflammaging.

Two others such as splicing dysregulation and altered mechanical properties have also been proposed but adding them into hallmarks is still under study.

What Supplements can help reverse these changes?

There is a variety of science-based data that has proven the use of supplements to treat/ reverse these hallmarks of aging. The tabular data represent their use.  This latest article has a more detailed review of these supplements and molecules.

Hallmarks of Aging

NNM Spermidine  Resveratrol  Ca-AKG Fisetin Quercetin
1. Genomic Instability

 
2. Telomere Degeneration

 
3. Epigenetic Alternations

4. Loss of Proteostasis

 

         ✓
5. Altered Nutrient Sensing  ✓

6. Mitochondrial dysfunction

 

7. Cellular Senescence

 
8. Stem Cell Exhaustion

 

9. Altered Cellular Communication

 

10. Disabled Macroautophagy  

 

11. Dysbiosis/ Microbiome Disturbance  

  ✓

12. Chronic Inflammation  

 

Animal and human models continue to shed light on the complexities of the metabolic process known as aging. These 12 characteristics of aging, however, may help us better comprehend the interconnectedness of how aging happens.

error: We have done all the researches ourselves - please respect intellectual property and link us rather than copying us, thank you!