From the earliest single-celled creatures to the most complex multicellular species, all life is dependent on a chemical known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). This molecule is involved in a variety of activities that are important for humans as well as many other creatures studied, such as yeast, flies, worms, and mice — to live a long and healthy life, let alone just to exist. NAD+ is involved in a wide range of cellular operations — required for approximately 500 enzymatic reactions that govern practically every significant biological activity – including fundamental yet critical roles such as assisting electrons in their movement between other molecules, which is required for many of the cell’s important chemical reactions, as well as monitoring and regulating metabolic activity.
The abbreviation NAD+ refers to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NAD+ is a critical coenzyme on which the mitochondria in each cell of our bodies rely to perform their essential tasks. From simple single-cell creatures such as bacteria to complex multicellular animals such as humans, NAD+ is a widespread and essential chemical.
Since its discovery in 1906, evidence has accumulated indicating NAD+ is necessary for the health of our cells, tissues, and bodies. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is required for communication between the nucleus of our cells and the mitochondria, which power all cellular activity. Researchers have shown a clear correlation between declining NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and human species.
When it comes to the scientific search for a way to halt the aging process, there are a solid handful of substances that appear to be highly promising. One of the most promising is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which has been demonstrated in clinical studies to increase the lifespans of yeast and animals as well as their ability to retain their youthful function. Our bodies generate fewer NADs as we age, and the mitochondrial-nucleus connection becomes compromised. Reduced NAD inhibits the cell’s capacity to produce energy, contributing to aging and illness, and may even be the primary reason we age.
Where is NAD+ found in cells?
Within each cell, NAD is segregated into distinct structures. It is located in the gelatinous fluid that fills the cell (cytoplasm), the cell’s battery packs (mitochondria), and the location of the cell’s genetic information (cytoplasm) (nucleus). These subcellular pools of NAD are controlled independently of one another, and the enzymes responsible for the production or breakdown of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide are also highly compartmentalized.
How Does The Body Produce NAD+?
NAD+ is involved in a variety of key biological activities and is always in need. To maintain steady intracellular NAD+ levels, NAD is continually produced, digested, and recycled inside the cell. Certain cells, primarily those in the liver, are capable of synthesizing NAD+ from scratch from a variety of dietary sources. NAD+ may be synthesized completely from L-tryptophan or vitamin precursors such as nicotinic acid (NA). Most cells outside the liver lack the enzymes required to convert tryptophan to NAD+.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an enzyme cofactor, is converted to NAM in the liver, where it is absorbed by peripheral cells and transformed into NAD+. An enzyme called NAMPT converts NAM to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is then transformed to NAD. Nicotinamide riboside (NR) generates NMN . NAD is constantly recycled by three kinds of NAD+-consuming enzymes: sirtuins, PARPs, and NAD+ glycohydrolases (also known as NADases) (CD38, CD157, and SARM1).
In addition to being consumed by the enzymes that use it, NAD is a cofactor or substrate for many biological activities. NAD is needed for the functioning of approximately 300 enzymes as cofactors. Therefore, NAD+ is an important regulator of vital cellular processes as well as metabolic requirements. The metabolic pathways, DNA maintenance and repair for genomic integrity, and autophagy, the cell’s recycling process, are all examples of what the cell does. These functions operate in concert to maintain the health and balance of the system. The passage of time, on the other hand, might damage these systems, aggravating aging-related illnesses.