Eye health is as important as anything else. NMN plays its role in this regard as it has been proven by research mentioned below.
NMN and Eyes Health – Preventing & Treating Dry Eye disease With NMN
Dry eye illness is one of the most common eye conditions that cause significant discomfort. Inflammation and hyperosmolarity, a condition that causes cells to lose hydration, produce eye surface damage, and perhaps vision loss. Dry eye therapy includes artificial tear eye drops, but researchers must still develop ways to retain eye cell function after hyperosmolarity injury. In eye problems such as retinal detachment, NMN has been demonstrated to protect cells, thus finding out if this can apply to dry eye disorder is important.
Zhu and colleagues from China’s Changshu Number 2 People’s Hospital published research in the Journal of Inflammation demonstrating how NMN maintains the survival of ocular cells from mice subjected to salt-induced hyperosmolarity. NMN raises levels of NAD+, which is utilized by SIRT1 to promote healthy metabolism and DNA integrity. Researchers think that by boosting NAD+, NMN protects retinal cells from damage.
Zhu and colleagues examined whether NMN protects mouse eye cells from a salt-induced hyperosmotic laboratory dish environment. The researchers discovered that therapy with NMN reduced cell death caused by hyperosmotic stress. These data suggest that NMN has a strong protective impact on eye cells when subjected to hyperosmotic stress in settings comparable to those associated with dry eye illness. Then Zhu and coworkers looked at how NMN lowers inflammation. In hyperosmotic stress, NMN reduces IL-17a levels. The team discovered that treating hyperosmotic situations with NMN increased SIRT1 levels and that treating with a SIRT1 inhibitor increased inflammatory markers. That NMN lowers inflammation by raising and activating SIRT1 is intriguing.
Zhu and colleagues studied macrophages to understand more about how NMN protects ocular cells. Immune cells have two states. Hyperosmotic environments boosted destructive M1 macrophages, while NMN and the IL-17a inhibitor encouraged repairing M2 macrophages. These studies suggest that NMN reduces macrophage killing and enhances healing by suppressing IL-17a, a key mediator of inflammation.
Grape Seed Extract & NMN Improving Eye Health
Our senses allow us to see the world (at least for humans). However, more than half a billion individuals suffer from retinal degenerative diseases and blindness. These visual problems are generally caused by age-related cell senescence, which causes disruptions in the retina.
Researchers from Zhengzhou University’s First Affiliated Hospital relieve retinal cellular senescence in aged mice by employing a chemical called proanthocyanidin produced from grape seeds. This Chinese study team demonstrated that grape seed extract works by increasing the activity of an enzyme responsible for the production of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). This study was published in the Journal Inflammation.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) nourishes the retinal vision cells immediately beyond the neurosensory retina. RPE dysfunction is linked to degenerative eye illnesses including diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is capacity to release substances that support the health of the eye’s sensory cells and the blood vessels that nourish them is impaired by aging. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging agent. This fruit-based chemical has been demonstrated to promote NAMPT, which is required to sustain levels of the age-related molecule NAD+ via NMN. NAMPT expression and NAD+ levels are lower in retinal degenerative disorders compared to healthy controls.
NAD+ Supplementation Protects Retinal Detachment
Obstructive ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy typically result in permanent vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium, which nourishes visual cells, is damaged in all of these conditions. This separation causes cell death, oxidative damage, and inflammation. But no existing drug can reverse photoreceptor degradation.
Researchers from Harvard Medical School have published findings in Aging indicating that nicotinamide mononucleotide protects photoreceptors following retinal separation and oxidative stress. The study found that NMN protects eye health by lowering cell death, reducing inflammation, and raising antioxidant levels. The researchers employed TUNEL+ labeling to observe cell death after retinal detachment in mice eyes. NMN supplementation decreased photoreceptor cell loss in the early stages of retinal detachment. The researchers found that injecting mice with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg NMN reduced photoreceptor cell death 24 hours after retinal detachment by 52.7 and 71.0%, respectively. (converting dosage from mice to human is to divide the applied dosage by 12.3 /kg for mice x human body weight kg = 250mg / kg for mice is thus 1,135 mg for a 56 kg adult)
The researchers discovered that NMN corrected oxidative stress while raising antioxidant HO-1 levels. The researchers found that NMN therapy reduced the number of protein carbonyls in detached retinas, indicating oxidative stress. NMN also boosted HO-1 expression in detached retinas. These findings suggest that NMN can reduce oxidative stress by upregulating HO-1.
These studies demonstrate that naturally occurring substances exist all around us that can help enhance health, lifespan, and age-related problems.