Female fertility declines with age. Ovarian age limits the number of eggs (ovum) and the window for their fertilizations. As women age, their capacity to conceive decreases in a reverse snowball fashion: the number and quality of structures that may sustain the ovum, termed ovarian follicles, steadily declines until menopause occurs. Given that menopause and the subsequent fall in oocyte quality appear to occur at a set time interval, therapies that extend the reproductive lifetime of females are in great demand.
Long-term NMN Administration Has Anti-Aging Effects in Ovaries
The ovary has a finite number of follicles, which is crucial for determining ovarian function. Women gradually lose the quantity and quality of ovarian follicles, which is a critical component of ovarian aging. Females are born with roughly 1-2 million primordial follicles — latent follicles containing one egg each. The number of primordial follicles continues to fall during the reproductive years until it reaches a crucial level at menopause when it is reduced to around 1,000 follicles.
Long-term therapy with nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) provides anti-aging benefits on the ovaries, according to researchers. The study demonstrated that 20 weeks of oral NMN administration can slow the aging of the mid-aged ovary, hence retaining the ovarian reserve. In middle-aged mice, this NMN therapy regimen enhanced the shape of the ovaries and decreased senescence – a process associated with aging that is defined by the termination of cell reproduction.
The researchers examined NMN’s influence on ovarian aging in 40-week-old mice (38-year-old people). After 20 weeks of NMN therapy, the number of follicles at crucial stages increased, from small primordial follicles to big preovulatory follicles and corpus luteum. This study shows that NMN can preserve ovarian reserve in middle-aged mice.
NMN Protects Egg Cells from Reproductive Toxins
Every birth brings the promise of a healthy kid – “10 fingers and 10 toes.” But certain chemicals disrupt sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as cause developmental harm in children. Ethylene glycol butyl ether is one such compound (EGBE). Chemical used in industrial and consumer items causes reproductive issues such as testicular injury, diminished female fertility, embryonic mortality, and birth abnormalities.
But how it affects female reproductive cells is studied in a recent study which revealed that EGBE exposure impaired oocyte maturation in pigs by altering cell shape and the powerhouse structures termed mitochondria. This caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in the oocytes, leading in oocyte death. Notably, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) restored NAD+ levels, cell structural integrity, and mitochondrial activity, reversing the effects of EGBE exposure.
NMN supplementation improves the quality of oocytes from old mice by preserving chromosomal quantity and fertilization’s capacity, So the aim was to test if this phenomenon would occur in mammals. NMN supplementation decreased EGBE-induced cytoskeletal and chromosomal misalignment in pig oocytes.
This suggests that NMN supplementation can play a positive role in pig oocyte competency.