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增強老化視力:改善老花眼的創新

Presbyopia

全世界有數百萬人患有老花眼,這是一種普遍存在的與年齡相關的眼部疾病。人們在40多歲開始出現老花眼,但到了50多歲就逐漸能更好地適應它。到了65歲的時候,每個人都會出現老花眼。根據一些新的研究(約 35 年),智慧型手機和平板電腦的使用最近加速了老花眼的形成。

老花眼中,隨著年齡的增長,眼睛的水晶體會失去一定的彈性,讓人們更難聚焦在最近的事物上。患有老花眼的人通常必須將書籍或雜誌保持在一定的距離才能有效地閱讀。需要長時間近距離觀看的活動可能會導致他們感到眼睛疲勞、頭痛和疲憊。

眼科的各種發現和發展為老花眼患者提供了提高視力和生活品質的可行選擇,例如單光或雙焦點老花眼鏡和隱形眼鏡。一些手術選擇包括 LASIK、角膜嵌體手術、屈光性水晶體置換術 (RLE) 和傳導性角膜移植術 (CK).

老花眼的治療方案可能包括被批准在一定程度上有效的藥物策略。近年來,草藥在治療視力問題方面也得到了廣泛的關注和應用。

針對老花眼治療的最新研究之一是針對老花眼的特定中草藥療法。

老花眼治療的最新研究

最近的 2021 年研究名為“使用決明子、枸杞和霍山石斛等中草藥混合物改善老花眼”,通過對大樣本人群的使用來研究草藥的治療效果,並了解其益處最後的。

在這項最新研究中,研究人員將決明子、決明子和霍山石斛 (DD) 結合起來,創造出一種治療老花眼的創新草藥配方。研究人員收集提取的材料,將它們磨成粉末,然後按照既定劑量將它們混合在膠囊中。

研究方法

研究共納入了400名患有老花眼(距離約40公分)且年齡在45-70歲之間的參與者(200名男性和200名女性)。草藥的組合以膠囊的形式口服給參與者。

他們配製了每粒膠囊中含有 200 毫克決明子、200 毫克枸杞和 40 毫克霍山石斛(DD)的複方草藥。

測試進一步分三個不同的階段或步驟進行。

  • 在第一個實驗中,透過讓參與者執行一系列俯臥撐或調節區域測試來評估參與者專注於附近物體的能力。

例如,醫生可以將一個小字母移離患者眼睛 0.4 或 0.5 米,直到該字母變形。醫生確定住宿的最近點、字母變得不清楚的距離或位置。然後,他們利用測試結果來確定適合老花眼鏡的鏡片度數。

  • 第二次測試將 240 人分為 6 個年齡段,服用草藥 6 個月,每人每天服用 3 粒。此後,他們又接受了六個月的監測,以確定藥物的作用在他們停止服用後是否會持續到不同年齡。
Presbyopia

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2021/9902211/fig1/

  • 在第三個實驗中,160名參與者被隨機分為四組,以確定老花眼患者的適當劑量。一組接受安慰劑(不含活性成分的藥物),第二組接受低劑量每天一粒膠囊,第三組接受中等劑量每天兩粒膠囊,第四組接受高劑量每天三粒膠囊。每天膠囊。小組參與者在停止治療之前接受了六個月的處方劑量。此外,他們還接受了六個月的監測,以評估任何長期影響。下圖顯示了第三個實驗的劑量分配
    Group 1 Placebo drug
    Group 2 Low dose (1 capsule a day)
    Group 3 Medium dose (2 capsules/day)
    Group 4 High dose 3 capsules/day)

結果給出了積極的見解

  • 在第一個實驗中,觀察到參與者的近焦(或「AA」)表現隨著年齡的增長而惡化。年紀較大的人需要老花眼鏡等輔助工具才能看到細節。
  • 實驗2中,經過六個月的草藥組合治療後,所有受試者的調節幅度(AA)增加了2.1D(用於評估水晶體屈光力的單位)。大多數人的未矯正近視力 (UNVA) 在 Jaeger 視力表(用於測試近視力的視力表)上也增加了大約兩到三行。九個月時,平均 AA 值下降至 2.0 D。這表明混合草藥可以在草藥治療停止後三個月內穩定近距離聚焦能力(AA)。
  • 在第三個實驗中,參與者在六個月內以不同劑量服用多種草藥組合。在低劑量組(LDG)、中劑量組(MDG)和高劑量組(HDG)中,最大AA值分別為2.8 D、2.9 D和3.2 D。這顯示近聚焦能力(AA)存在劑量依賴性改善。也就是說; AA 越好,草藥治療的劑量就越顯著。

研究參與者報告沒有副作用,如抽搐、頭痛、腹瀉、發紅、搔癢或皮疹。

最後的想法

上述研究的結果顯示混合草藥產品改善了近距離視力。因此,近焦(AA)和近清晰度(UNVA)都得到了改善。

結果還表明,服用草藥的量會影響 95% 的參與者的近距離視力改善程度。

決明子的副交感神經功能可以改善調節系統,而枸杞子的交感神經作用可以緩解老花眼症狀和隨之而來的乾眼症。

決明子和枸杞具有強大的抗氧化特性,DD透過阻斷山梨醇和晚期糖化終產物的形成來減緩白內障的發展。

經過六個月的治療,約 95% 的患者病情有所改善。因此,有人提出,草藥補充劑因其可及性、安全性和持久的藥理作用而可以提供替代方案。

中藥的治療作用

傳統醫學中可能具有藥用價值的幾種草藥包括決明子、枸杞和霍山石斛。由於人們對它們提供的健康益處的廣泛興趣,這些草藥最近走到了最前線。下面列出了一些已批准的福利。

決明子/決明子

The Chinese have known about Cassiae Semen or Cassiae seeds for their vision, liver function, and various types of inflammation for thousands of years.

These days, dry eye and retinitis pigmentosa are on the list of ocular ailments that cassia seeds are being used to treat, along with headaches, obesity, periocular discomfort, constipation, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease, ischemic stroke, and bronchospasm.

It is also rich in many other compounds (almost 55 of these) such as flavonoids, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, obtusin, rhein, aurantio-obtusin, chryso-obtusin, and anthraquinones. These chemicals have been found to have different pharmacological functions, such as anticoagulant, antiangiogenic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties.

Cassia seeds tea is found to be equally effective. Among the many advantages of cassia seed tea are the following:

  • Aids in relaxing the mind and relieving tension
  • Benefits heart health by lowering “bad” cholesterol levels while raising “good” ones
  • It might aid digestion by encouraging the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestines.

How Much to Take? 

The China Pharmacopeia recommends a daily intake of 9-15 g of Semen Cassiae for adults. The same goes for the Cassiae seeds consumption orally.

Herbal teas and pills containing Cassiae Semen are frequent ways to ingest this supplement. It should be noted, however, that ideal dosage and reaction may differ across individuals.

Side effects

The compounds chrysophanol, obtusin, and Aurantio-obtusin are responsible for the beneficial effects of Cassia seeds. There are negative consequences from the substances as well. That is,

Lycium barbarum (Goji berries)

Goji berries (Wolf Berries), also known as the fruit of L. barbarum, have been used for centuries as an antiaging plant. Its high nutritional content and high reputation have earned it the label of “superfood.”

Clinical studies have shown that it is effective against dry eye, hazy vision, ocular tiredness, AMD, diabetic retinopathy, UV light-induced retinal degeneration, and pathology, particularly in the cases of retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. (1) Recent research also proves it may help protect against glaucoma damage. It has also been proven to treat dry eyes, blurred vision, photosensitivity, night blindness, and reduced visual acuity.

Another research also suggests that eating these tiny red berries daily might reduce the risk of developing hypopigmentation and drusen (yellow deposit) in the eye.

How Much to Take? 

Individual conditions and the manner of consumption (fresh berries, dried berries, juice, extract, etc.) might affect the recommended dosage of goji berries for supporting eye health. But the following has been proven by researchers.

  • Consumption of 25 g of Goji berries for 90 days has been found to improve age-related macular degeneration. Also, their best-corrected visual acuity increased from baseline.
  • In another research, 5 gs of L. barbarum was given twice daily to 50 individuals for 12 months, and follow-up was done after every 6 months. The study’s results led to the conclusion that this extract causes improvements in visual acuity and macular thickness in adults with retinitis pigmentosa.

The recommended dosage is just 10 to 20 grams. But the dosage may change depending on the individual’s weight and condition. You should get your doctor’s approval before trying anything.

Side effects

Goji berries have a reputation for being healthy and well-tolerated by most of its consumers, but it’s important to be cautious of individual sensitivities or allergic responses such as,

Dendrobium huoshanense (DD)

Dendrobium, also known as “Shihu,” is a member of the orchid family (Orchidaceae) that is used in traditional Chinese medicine. The medicinal properties of Dendrobium species as a whole have been investigated.

The stem of has Dendrobium huoshanense (DD) been used traditionally to cure throat irritation, chronic superficial gastritis, body strengthening, and longevity.

DD has several active substances with various pharmacological effects, including alkaloids, stilbenoids, anthracene, polysaccharides, fluorine, flavone, phenanthrene, and gigantol. For eye-related diseases, it has been found to be effective in treating dry eye, diabetes, and ischemic retinopathy, among other ocular conditions.

The effectiveness of the plant in preventing and treating senile cataracts and improving children’s eyesight has been validated by modern pharmacological studies.

How Much to Take? 

Dendrobium huoshanense is typically ingested as herbal tea, extracts, or supplements.

When brewed as tea, Dendrobium is taken at a dosage of 6–12 grams for dried form and 12–30 grams for fresh form. Higher dosages, up to 20g, are acceptable.

Dendrobium has been awarded a class one grade by the American Herbal Products Association, which means it is safe to ingest at reasonable levels; nevertheless, excessive consumption is not recommended.

Side effects

It is usually considered safe but somehow can also have adverse effects such as,

The findings of the above-discussed research suggest that the mixed herbal treatment, when used as directed, can help people with presbyopia maintain or improve their visual acuity.

It is essential to note that even though these herbs have a long history of traditional use and exhibit promising potential, scientific research is ongoing to understand their therapeutic effects better. Nonetheless, these findings emphasize the potential of traditional Chinese herbal medicines in maintaining eye health and give promise for alternative and complementary ways to address presbyopia.

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